Your Backyard Wildlife Habitat: Fall Cleanup, Bird Feeding and Fleas

birds at the feeder

The feeder in autumn

So what do these three topics have in common? It’s time to start cleaning up the excess in the yard, raking leaves and giving the grass that last cut of the season, and time to put out the winter feeders as the migrants settle into your area. By taking care of a few extra details with the first two, you can manage the third, fleas, much more easily through the dormant season and into next year. Don’t be fooled after that first frosty morning when all fleas seem to be gone—there may be no more adult fleas, but there are plenty of eggs tucked all over your yard just waiting for spring.

Where Do Fleas Come From?

Fleas begin in the great outdoors, even in the nicest yard, and don’t think that simply because you don’t let your pet outside, or it’s only outside for a short while, that fleas won’t find them. Fleas are tiny and can hop amazing distances to get to a warm body for their blood meal, they can ride in on your own body though they don’t generally feed on humans, and encountering another animal that has fleas either on a walk outdoors or even at the veterinarian’s office can infest your pet without it ever setting a paw in the back yard.

Read the rest of this entry »


Holiday Cards: Greetings From Our Backyard Birds

pastel painting of cardinal in branches

Accent, pastel © B.E. Kazmarski

These designs don’t involve cats, but they do show our backyard birds which many readers here at The Creative Cat enjoy.  I’ve posted an article about them on Portraits of Animals Marketplace.


Living Green With Pets: Put Bird Feeders Out Now for Migrants

two black cats watching birds

Birdwatching

Birds are migrating right now, and while most people feed birds through the winter it’s not a bad idea to start a little early while they are migrating. They’ll appreciate the pit stop to be able to pack in more fat and calories, have a bath and a good long drink! Plus, a certain number will decide to stop and stay with you for the winter.

photo of cardinal in grass

Our silly cardinal

I feed birds year-round, and I always credit them with keeping vegetable and flower pests under control, especially fleas. I know they also peck around through the grass eating fleas. Those starlings and grackles who march around on your lawn? They’ll happily eat fleas. Robins in the spring? Fleas don’t stand a chance. Songbirds that eat insects? Fleas are a natural part of their diet.

woodpecker and wren at feeder

Ms. Wren had better watch her step

So put out your feeders early, while the migrants are arriving and food is still plentiful so they’ll settle in more readily, using as much black oil sunflower seed as possible since it’s the universal favorite of birds which commonly visit feeders and gives the most energy for the energy expended to open the seed and eat it.

If they aren’t finding your feeders try adding a suet cake to the display. Suet cakes aren’t just for winter feeding—they provide concentrated high-protein, high-energy food that’s easy to eat and easy to digest. Birds not only need this to keep warm in the winter, but also while they travel hundreds of miles each day to reach their winter destination, often without stopping at all. In fact, a recent study of migrating Swainson’s thrushes shows that birds pack in the fat not only to sustain energy while traveling, but also to provide water without stopping to drink. Suet cakes won’t melt in warm weather, so don’t worry about a mess. If you can’t find suet cakes yet, or find they are a little expensive, I have a recipe for homemade ones, though these may soften if temperatures rise above 80 degrees or they are in direct sun for some time.

sparrows in birdbath

Sparrow Bath

But a water source is just as important as the food and even more of an attractant, since flowers and seeds and insects are everywhere, but water sources can be scarce. You can keep your birdbath going until the temperatures drop below freezing, or if you have a special watering station you use in winter you can set it out now so they become accustomed to it.

Don’t worry that feeding birds will take away their interest in their natural diet—most studies show that birds get about 10% of their total food intake from seed feeders. Feeding them while migrating helps reduce mortality. And if insects are their diet, they’ll still happily devour any insect that visits your yard, including those that hatch on a warm day!

For great tips on birdfeeding, attracting birds and identifying birds, visit the Project Feederwatch website under Birds and Bird Feeding.

Plus, they’ll provide lots of entertainment for your cats, which might sound like a luxury but it’s a very important element in an indoor cat’s daily life. Don’t forget, it’s Happy Health Cat Month, and keeping them naturally entertained and flea free keeps them both happy and health!

four black cats at window

Let Us At Him

For more information on bird feeding and Backyard Wildlife Habitats, visit my Backyard Wildlife Habitat page.

For more information on naturally controlling fleas in your yard year round, read Fall Cleanup, Bird Feeding and Fleas, and also As Natural as Possible: Outdoor Flea Control.

All images used on this site are copyrighted to Bernadette E. Kazmarski unless otherwise noted and may not be used without my written permission. Please ask if you are interested in purchasing one as a print, or to use in a print or internet publication.


Fall Cleanup, Bird Feeding and Fleas

birds at the feeder

The feeder in autumn

So what do these three topics have in common? It’s time to start cleaning up the excess in the yard, even raking leaves in some parts of the country, and time to put out the winter feeders as the migrants settle into your area. By taking care of a few extra details with the first two, you can manage the third, fleas, much more easily through the dormant season and into next year. Don’t be fooled after that first frosty morning when all fleas seem to be gone—no more adults, but plenty of eggs are just waiting for spring.

Where Do Fleas Come From?

Fleas begin in the great outdoors, even in the nicest yard, and don’t think that simply because you don’t let your pet outside, or it’s only outside for a short while, that fleas won’t find them. Fleas are tiny and can hop amazing distances to get to a warm body for their blood meal, they can ride in on your own body though they don’t generally feed on humans, and encountering another animal that has fleas either on a walk outdoors or even at the veterinarian’s office can infest your pet without it ever setting a paw in the back yard. As I discovered, my deck was infested from animals who’d overwintered there and the fleas were jumping in through the door and riding in on me, so I infested my own house!

Fleas live in moist, shady areas in the yard, in the thatch in your lawn, debris piles, leaf litter, cord wood stacks and even under your deck or porch unless it’s completely dry. They’ve often overwintered in these areas and with the moisture of spring eggs start hatching as soon as it’s warm enough and shady after trees and shrubs have leafed out, about when temperatures rise above 60 degrees at night or 70 degrees during the day, so these are the areas you need to focus on in your fall cleanup.

Integrated Pest Management

photo of two cats in the grass

Namir and Cookie in the yard.

I’ve always taken one or more of my cats into my back yard, so I’ve always included fleas in my pest management. Adult fleas are very particular about moisture and temperature, but flea eggs can live through a lot of punishment and still hatch and carry on the next generation so they need to be managed from year to year, not just for the summer.

It’s obvious that species have been kept in balance for millennia by some means outside of human controls. I am a Master Gardener and began years ago to start my own plants, identify seedlings, diagnose pests and diseases and build soil. I manage my little yard as a wildlife habitat, friendly to all native species as well as the plants I choose to grow and have always called on the forces of nature to manage the populations as an ecosystem, allowing it to find its own balance, and this has worked for managing fleas as well as other insect pests in my lawn, vegetable garden, flower beds and natural areas.

The two basic steps in managing any pest that outgrows its controls is to find out where it lives and destroy that habitat to any extent possible, and then find its natural predators and encourage them to inhabit and flourish, forever if possible.

Cleaning Up the Debris

We need to clean this up.

In the fall, I use my mower to shred all the leaves on my lawn, but let them fall elsewhere, and I pretty much leave all the plants standing in the garden for the birds to feed on and insects to nest on until spring. I rake and ruffle but leave the mulch and debris under shrubs and in protected spots because wildlife will use this throughout the winter for cover.

But I remove any planters or large objects, piles of lumber or plant stakes, bricks and blocks, emptying the soil into the compost, cleaning them and putting them away. I move everything out from under my deck, rake the dirt and gravel surfaces, clean everything off, and place it back underneath. Other objects I’ll simply move around. This little shuffling disturbs the nests and overwintering sites and displaces a heck of a lot of fleas at a time when they can’t easily find a new home, and when the weather is inhospitable to them. I’ll even flip over the bricks on my pathways and patios when it’s cold to displace anything that might be living underneath (usually slugs).

Next spring, you can remove all the standing stems, now empty of seeds, and rake off the leaf cover long before it’s warm enough for fleas to hatch and survive but while their predators can survive and thrive and be ready for any flea infestations later in the spring. In the meantime, you’ve simply eliminated a lot of adults who won’t be able to nest and lay eggs or jump on your dog or cat or you if they are still alive on a cold morning.

You can read more about what to do in the spring in Fleas, Part 1, Controlling Them Where They Live: Outdoors.

Modify Your Lawn and Attract a Flea’s Natural Predators

spider on flower

Waiting for the Insect

You can also encourage the flea’s natural predators to come and live in your lawn and garden. Insect predators include ants, spiders and ground beetles, other species include amphibians such as toads and salamanders, reptiles such as garter snakes, and even birds that feed on the ground.

Focusing on fall cleanup and overwintering, you want to welcome them to nest in your yard by incorporating native plants and herbs and allowing your lawn to grow a little taller. Two inches is the minimum height to encourage ants and spiders, the main predators of fleas. Cutting the grass taller and less often helps the predators develop habitat and do their job on the fleas.

My lawn is only about half grass, while the rest is a mixture of short native plants and ground covers, plus opportunistic peppermint, pennyroyal and marjoram escaped from my herb gardens and the seedlings for next year’s forget-me-nots, daisies and other biennials and spring ephemerals. This diversity of flora encourages a diversity of fauna and eliminates large areas of one type of habitat so nothing has a chance to overpopulate.

In addition to the migrant birds, the aforementioned insects, arachnids, amphibians and reptiles will be looking for homes for the winter as well. Allowing overwintering sites for them will have them in place and ready in the spring.

This is Where Bird Feeding Comes In

photo of cardinal in grass

Our silly cardinal

I feed birds year-round, and while I always credit them with keeping vegetable and flower pests under control, I know they also peck around through the grass eating fleas. Those starlings and grackles who march around on your lawn? They’ll happily eat fleas. Robins in the spring? Fleas don’t stand a chance. Songbirds that eat insects? Fleas are a natural part of their diet.

So put out your feeders early, while the migrants are arriving and food is still plentiful so they’ll settle in more readily. If they aren’t finding your feeders try adding a suet cake to the display, though you’ll want to leave most of these for later in the winter when the birds will need the protein and fat more than now.

sparrows in birdbath

Sparrow Bath

A water source is just as important as the food and even more of an attractant, since flowers and seeds and insects are everywhere, but water sources can be scarce. You can keep your birdbath going until the temperatures drop below freezing, or if you have a special watering station you use in winter you can set it out now so they become accustomed to it.

Don’t worry that feeding birds will take away their interest in their natural diet—most studies show that birds get about 10% of their total food intake from seed feeders. If insects are their diet, they’ll still happily devour any insect that visits your yard, including those that hatch on a warm day!

For great tips on birdfeeding, attracting birds and identifying birds, visit the Project Feederwatch website under Birds and Bird Feeding.

Plus, they’ll provide lots of winter entertainment for your cats, which might sound like a luxury but it’s a very important element in an indoor cat’s daily life.

Managing Wildlife

groundhog in cage

One groundhog ready to go.

It’s good to welcome wildlife to your back yard, and even to visit your deck, but not to come and live  on your deck or even too close to your house. Most wild animals harbor a few fleas, and some species are typically infested. That darned squirrel that hangs out on your deck, or the groundhog that’s burrowed underneath it—or the opossum that nested in your piled-up porch furniture until spring, or the little field mice and voles who sacrifice themselves to your cats in the basement, all leave behind fleas in their nesting spots.

My squirrels spend about half their time scratching, and wild rabbits, chipmunks, gophers, mice and voles are also heavily infested with fleas.

Normally every spring I clean off my deck, sweep, wash and apply water-based waterproofing to the wood, then move things back, but this spring’s schedule didn’t allow the time. I really did have a few squirrel nests and an opposum, plus the groundhog who spent part of the winter holed up in the dirt right beneath where the door is. Once I cleaned off the deck, swept and washed it as well as hosed down all the items that were there, my constant re-infestation stopped, but it reinforced the importance of fall and spring clean-ups for controlling fleas!

Some Resources for Chemical-Free Outdoor Flea Control

You can get ten pages of results or more in an internet search on flea control, diatomaceous earth, pyrethrins and so on, but I try to find studies or information from non-commercial sources to cite.

Yardener.com has a series of articles about dealing with fleas in your yard, and the article about preventing fleas in the future is especially informative—plus the site is a great resource for dealing with all sorts of pest problems in your yard.

http://yardener.com/YardenersPlantProblemSolver/DealingWithPestInsects/BitingInsects/Fleas/PreventingFleasNextYear

If you’re interested in more information about Backyard Wildlife Habitats, please visit the Backyard Wildlife Habitat page on my site with articles on developing your habitat and articles showing the photos, paintings and sketches I’ve done that were inspired but my backyard.


Backyard Birdfeeding 2: Baffling the Squirrels

As bird feeding season approaches (for those of you who the birds can’t convince to feed all year), so does outwit-the-squirrel season at the your feeders. The problem is that the squirrel has nothing better to do all day than to scheme and plot about how it’s not only going to get at the seed you’ve put out for the birds, but also how it’s going to destroy your feeder and make the seed more accessible next time while you have to go out and work for your living, shovel snow, and other such human activities.

I’ve gotten so mad I’ve stopped feeding the birds for a few days. Really stupid, but I get so tired of chasing the squirrel away and replacing feeders that they chew on.

After years of designing ever more elaborate (and ugly) squirrel baffles, I’ve come up with one that is inexpensive and easy to install and replace, and as attractive or as plain as you’d like it to be, plus I read about another that wears out soon enough but is a riot to watch.

Bowl Baffle

bird feeder with bowl cover and squirrel baffle

Tube feeder with bowl-style squirrel baffle.

The first is a bowl baffle that hangs over just about any feeder, made from a large plastic bowl easily obtainable for about $1.00, like the 8-quart plastic bowl pictured. The bowl should be wide enough to keep the squirrel from being able to hang over the edge and reach the feeder for feeding or destructive purposes. Even if the squirrel can hook its toes around the cord or chain that suspends your feeder the depth and circumference of your bowl generally keeps it from reaching around and under the edge of the bowl. The squirrel’s weight usually manages to tip the bowl far enough that the squirrel slides off before it can do much damage if it can reach the feeder. An added benefit is that the bowl also keeps the feeder covered from the weather.

Cut or drill a hole in the center of the bottom of the bowl; this can be reinforced by gluing washers around the hole, but it’s not necessary. If the bowl has a lip, as this one does, also punch some holes in the lip so that liquid and debris won’t collect in it. Slide the suspension cord or chain for your feeder through the center hole and hang the feeder. Slide the bowl as far down toward the feeder as you can get it—this won’t get in any bird’s way unless the feeder has openings near the top. They often perch on the lip of the bowl to wait their turn.

You can find bowls in all colors and perhaps coordinate with your house, or be creative and paint designs on your bowl with outdoor trim enamel to stand out in the winter landscape. You can also use stainless steel or other materials if you have the right tools. Just don’t get too attached to it if it’s plastic, because the squirrels will chew on it, if only in frustration—but better a $1.00 bowl than a $40.00 feeder with $10.00 of seed in it.
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